FDA Expands Indication of Antiviral Therapy to Include Post-Exposure Influenza Prevention
November 23, 2020 09:45pm
The latest news on chronic, acute, and preventive care across the health care landscape.
Chronic: High-Intensity Interval Training Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetes Patients
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases glucose metabolism in muscles and increases insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a study published in theScandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. Healthy men in their 40s and 50s were assigned to either HITT or moderate intensity training. Later, a group of participants with prediabetes or T2D performed a similar 2-week training routine. “Before the training started, the glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity of the insulin resistant persons were significantly reduced compared to the group of health individuals,” said investigator Tanja Sjöros. “However, already after 2 weeks of high intensity training, which amounted to 6 training sessions, the glucose metabolism in the thigh muscles achieved the starting level of the healthy control group.” The results of the study showed improvement in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity after both HITT and moderate intensity continuous training. The findings suggest that individuals are free to choose the type of training that fits them. However, the authors noted that the group that did moderate intensity achieved only half of the improvement that the HITT group experienced during the 2-week period. Thus, this type of training requires a longer period of time.
Acute: Maine Reaches New Record in 2016 for Lyme Disease Cases
Lyme disease cases skyrocketed in Maine in 2016, after an extremely dry summer that caused ticks to be in a hibernation-like state, according to thePortland Press Herald. The Maine CDC reported that Lyme cases were below 5-year averages through July, before surging in the fall. The Maine Medical Center Research Institute is currently conducting a multiyear study to examine how ticks survive in the winter. Thus far, approximately 70% of ticks in the study survived the cold in southern Maine. Investigators noted that now that the weather is starting to turn warmer, the ticks will be out in full force starting this week. “We don’t know how bad the ticks are going to be yet, but we’re going to have some pretty warm days over the next 2 to 3 weeks,” “That’s going to open the doors wide open for them.” The institute is expected to count tick populations and note the activity this week, reported thePortland Press Herald.
Preventive: Identified Protein May Improve Vaccine Efficacy
Scientists purified the protein PorB—–located on the exterior of the bacteria Neisseria meningidis––and used it to provide a better vaccination response. In a study published inScientific Reports, investigators used 2 experimental models. One model was given a vaccination with antigen and mixed PorB, whereas the second model was given the antigen alone. The results of the study showed that the model given PorB had an increased response to the vaccine antigen compared with the vaccination with the antigen alone. “This study has wide implications as it could not only be used to help the body identify and fight off bacterial infections, but it could also potentially help the body use its own machinery to fight off other diseases like cancer, HIV, and influenza before they have a chance to establish within the body,” said corresponding author Lee Wetzler, MD. “Our study deepens the general understanding of how vaccine adjuvants modulate immune responses. The antigen formulation with PorB triggers a sequence of cellular events at the periphery and in lymphoid tissues that are critical for the establishment of protection to a broad array of infectious diseases, and maybe other diseases like cancer.”