Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used to treat acid reflux, a recent study suggests that the use of these medications could be associated with a greater risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
The study, which was published inJAMA Internal Medicine, analyzed 10,482 patients who were followed for a median of approximately 14 years. The research team found that there were 56 CKD events among 322 baseline PPI users (14.2 per 1000 person-years) compared with 1382 events among 10,160 baseline nonusers (10.7 per 1000 person-years).
The researchers attempted to replicate these results in a separate group of 248,751 patients who were followed for a median of 6 years. In this group, there were 1921 CKD events among 16,900 baseline PPI users (20.1 per 1000 person-years) and 28,226 events among 231,851 baseline nonusers (18.3 per 1000 person-years).
The 10-year absolute risk of CKD among baseline PPI users was estimated to be 11.8% in the initial group and 15.6% in the replication group; comparatively, the estimated 10-year absolute risk of CKD for patients who were not treated with PPIs was 8.5% and 13.9% in the initial and replication groups, respectively.
The study authors acknowledged that participants who are prescribed PPIs may be at higher risk for CKD for reasons unrelated to PPI use, and they noted that further research is needed to establish whether PPIs can cause kidney damage. However, they added that their findings could lead to a greater call for the reduction of unnecessary PPI use.