Drinking 2 to 3 cups of coffee a day is linked to a longer lifespan compared with those who do not drink coffee, according to findings of a study published in the European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.
The findings also demonstrated a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with those who do not drink coffee and applies to decaffeinated, ground, and instant varieties of coffee.
“In this large, observational study, ground, instant, and decaffeinated coffee were associated with equivalent reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular disease and death from [CVD] or any cause,” Peter Kistler, PhD, FRACP, of the Baker Heart and Diabetes Research Institute in Melbourne, Australia, said in a statement. “The results suggest that mild to moderate intake of ground, instant, and decaffeinated coffee should be considered part of a healthy lifestyle.”
Investigators aimed to examine the associations between types of coffee and incident arrhythmias, CVD, and death using data from the UK Biobank, which recruited individuals between aged 40 and 69 years. They defined CVD as congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke.
The study included 449,563 individuals, who were free of arrhythmias and other CVD. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess how many cups of coffee they drink each day and whether it was decaffeinated, ground, or instant.
They were split into 6 daily intake categories: no coffee; less than 1; 1; 2 to 3; 4 to 5, and more than 5 cups of coffee per day.
There were 44.1% of individuals who drank instant, 18.4% who drank ground, 15.2% who drank decaffeinated, and 22.4% who did not drink coffee.
All types of coffee were linked with a reduction in death from any cause, with the greatest reduction seen with 2 to 3 cups per day compared with non-coffee drinkers. An association was also found to a 14%, 27%, and 11% lower likelihood of death for decaffeinated, ground, and instant coffees, respectively.
All coffee types were associated with a reduction in incident CVD, with the lowest risk observed in 2 to 3 cups per day compared with non-coffee drinkers. Coffee drinking was also associated with a 6%, 20%, and 9% reduced likelihood of CVD, respectively.
Ground and instant coffee, but not decaffeinated, was associated with a reduction in arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation. The lowest risks were observed with 4 to 5 cups of coffee for ground and 2 to 3 cups of coffee for instant, with 17% and 12% reductions seen, respectively.
“Caffeine is the most well-known constituent in coffee, but the beverage contains more than 100 biologically active components. It is likely that the non-caffeinated compounds were responsible for the positive relationships observed [among] coffee drinking, [CVD], and survival,” Kistler said.
“Our findings indicate that drinking modest amounts of coffee of all types should not be discouraged but can be enjoyed as a heart healthy behavior,” he said.
Individuals were adjusted for age, alcohol and tea consumption, diabetes, ethnicity, high blood pressure, obesity, obstructive sleep apnea, sex, and smoking status. The outcomes were obtained via death and medical records with a median follow-up of 12.5 years.
Coffee drinking is associated with increased longevity. News release. Science Daily. September 26, 2022. Accessed October 14, 2022. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2022/09/220926200838.htm